A harmonic reducer, also known as a harmonic drive or a strain wave gear, is a type of gear mechanism used to achieve high gear reduction ratios with precise motion control. It is commonly used in robotics, automation systems, aerospace applications, and other areas where compact size, high torque, and high precision are required.

The fundamental principle behind a harmonic reducer is the use of elastic deformation to transmit motion. It consists of three main components: a wave generator (input shaft), a flex spline (output shaft), and a circular spline (outer ring). These components are typically made of high-strength materials such as steel or titanium.

The wave generator has a series of external teeth arranged on an elliptical cam. As the wave generator rotates, the elliptical cam deforms the flex spline, causing it to engage with the circular spline. The flex spline has fewer teeth than the circular spline, resulting in a gear reduction. The deformation of the flex spline produces a wave-like motion, hence the name "harmonic drive."

The tooth engagement in a harmonic reducer is achieved through a phenomenon called "flex spline tooth wave." The elliptical shape of the wave generator causes the teeth of the flex spline to deform elastically, generating a wave pattern that engages with the circular spline. This deformation creates a high gear reduction ratio while maintaining backlash-free and precise motion.

The advantages of harmonic reducers include high torque transmission, compact size, high precision, and zero backlash. They can achieve gear reduction ratios ranging from 50:1 to over 120:1, depending on the specific design. The absence of backlash ensures accurate positioning and reversibility, making them suitable for applications that require precise control and repeatability.

Harmonic reducers also exhibit high torsional stiffness, allowing them to handle heavy loads and resist torsional deformation. They have low inertia and rotational inertia mismatch, enabling quick response and smooth motion. Additionally, they have a long service life due to minimal wear and tear, resulting in reduced maintenance requirements.

Despite their advantages, harmonic reducers have certain limitations. They tend to have lower efficiency compared to other gear mechanisms, typically ranging from 70% to 90%. They are also relatively expensive compared to traditional gear systems. Furthermore, they may produce some harmonic vibrations or noise due to the tooth engagement mechanism.

In summary, a harmonic reducer is a specialized gear mechanism that combines elastic deformation with tooth engagement to achieve high gear reduction ratios with precision and compactness. Its unique design features make it suitable for a wide range of applications requiring high torque, high precision, and compact size.

High-Performance Strain-wave Harmonic Reducers


Cup type - Unit set


Silk hat type - Unit set